Carbohydrate Strategies For Climbing Performance

This lengthy article outlines potential carbohydrate feeding strategies for climbers, with specific recommendations for training and recovery periods, competition and project preparation, with research references that informed these guidelines.

I also recommend listening to ClimbSci - Episode 02 - Carbohydrate where Brian and I discuss the science behind fuelling with carbohydrates.

Published: 01/08/2017
Comments: Facebook

Fuel for the Work Required

I believe the better strategy for optimising training output, climbing performance, and improving body-composition, is not taking a linear approach to carbohydrate (CHO) intake, but rather a day-to-day, meal-to-meal periodised approach.

We do not train, perform, or recover in the same way every day (week, month), and yet we often take a linear or lifestyle approach to our diets, be it “high-carb”, “primal/paleo”, LCHF (low-carbohydrate high-fat), or “ketogenic” to support our goals.

Limiting carbohydrate makes sense in the context of health for the less active individual, limiting carbohydrate at the expense of training output and performance does not. Though there is data on the potential for “train low” or “sleep low” strategies to augment the training effect, there is no data on sustained low-carbohydrate diets improving maximal performance outside of confounding factors like lowered body-weight. In contrast, we have years of data showing carbohydrate augments both endurance and high-intensity exercise performance.

Just because one strategy is efficacious in one context at one time, does not mean that the same strategy is efficacious in all contexts at all times. If you are continuing to force square pegs into round holes in the event they might eventually fit, you are falling behind the person putting round pegs into round holes day after day, and getting better and better at it.

The ketogenic diet has received considerable attention in the popular press and many claims have been made recently. However, it is important to realize that, to date, not a single study has demonstrated performance benefit of a ketogenic diet, including the early study that is often referred to (Phinney, 1983). Thus, at present, there are no data on ketogenic diets in athletes on which to base performance claims.[1]

Programmed periodisation of carbohydrate intake rather than chronic linear consumption allows for greater training volume, recovery, adaptation, and favourable body-composition changes, these will ultimately lead to better overall climbing performance.

Using a “fuel for the work required”[2] approach allows us to maintain metabolic flexibility: the ability to metabolise fat at higher aerobic intensities without compromising carbohydrate (glucose/glycogen) metabolism when maximum power output is required.

You do not have to choose sides between fuelling with fat or carbohydrate, rather you should choose the strategy that does the most at the right time and in the right context.

The “430” Principle

Practical Summary

As with any intervention: change one thing and track the outcome. If you are not monitoring and assessing your changes, you are guessing as to what is having a positive or negative impact.

These guidelines are derived from some creative yet careful thinking from the current literature. References are listed below, examine the literature, don’t just take my word for it.

Importantly, these numbers are not gospel. They are guidelines with which you experiment.


  • 3g/kg of CHO per day with an additional ~30-60g immediately before climbing / training session, and ~30-60g every 1-2 hours during the session depending on work intensity. (~200g/day at 70kg + ~60-120g spread around the session).
  • Experiment with intermittent (one session per week) low-glycogen endurance training sessions (climbing, cycling, running, swimming, etc). Consume no CHO after the last session, and low CHO (<60g/day) leading up to the next session. Return to normal CHO intake following.

More specific

  • Recovery / rest days: 2-3g/kg/day total, ideally consume all meals in ≤12 h window (e.g. 8:00-20:00) during daylight hours. (~140-210g/day at 70kg)
  • Climbing / training days: 4-5g/kg/day total, allocated ~30-60g <1 hour before session, ~30-60g with ~500mls liquid every 1-2 hours during the session depending on the work intensity, with the remaining day’s allocation after spread across the hours leading to bed. (~280-350g/day at 70kg)
  • Preparation for event / competition / project: ≥5g/kg/day total, 24-36 hours before day of event, with no muscle-taxing climbing / training. (≥350g/day at 70kg)
  • During event / competition / project: ≥5g/kg/day total, allocated ~100-150g 3-4 hours away from event, ~30-60g <1 hour before event, ~30-60g with ~500mls liquid every 1 hour, spread remaining between events (if multiple) and afterwards leading to bed.
  • Rapid glycogen recovery: ≥1.2g/kg/hour (~85g/hour at 70kg) of a glucose-fructose mix or sucrose (sugar) can enhance glycogen repletion rates whilst minimising gastrointestinal distress.
  • You must experiment with CHO types, amounts, timing, meal combinations (CHO, protein, fat), and supplements (sports drinks, gels, etc), well before events. The decision, testing, and practice of event feeding strategies is essential to mitigate performance impairment on the day.

Why Carbohydrate?

Let me first ask you a question…

Why wouldn’t you want to consume carbohydrate?

Over the last number of years, there has been much research and discussion on the contribution of the “Western Diet” to obesity and lifestyle related diseases. The diet can be summed up as being high in energy (kcal) and low in nutritional quality, generally consisting of refined food products typically high in refined carbohydrates, particularly sugars, and high in added fats such as vegetable oils.

We know that the obesity epidemic is predominantly driven by a steady increase in food supply and daily energy intake over the years.[3] Additional refined carbohydrates have been added to existing our diets, replacing more protein, and without a subsequent lowering of fat intake. But the health implications did not arise due to an isolated macronutrient (e.g. sucrose) or even just excessive energy intake, but rather the combination of both.

If you consume any macronutrient (carbohydrate, fat, protein) in excess—which by definition means higher than your relative need for it in a specific window of time—your body has to handle the excess. The macronutrient illicits an effect relative to the body’s needs, and the body’s relative capacity to handle the excess. The dose makes the poison.

Two scenarios:

  1. You have just woken after 8 hours of sleep. The night before you did a full-body training session followed by a chicken and avocado salad for dinner. You have a large fried breakfast, danish pastry, two glasses of orange juice, and a cappuccino with sugar.
  2. It’s Friday evening, you have just got back from the work. You have a large takeaway pizza, two beers, ice-cream, and 30 minutes later you are a watching a movie with a bowl of popcorn and bag of jelly beans.

In both cases you are consuming an excessive amount of energy (kcal), carbohydrate, fat, and protein in a single feeding window. The difference is though, in the first scenario you were at “higher relative state of need”.

That is, you are coming out of an overnight fast, you body is recovering from a training session, you had a small low-carbohydrate meal before bed, and you are about to start your working day. Therefore your muscles and liver have lower levels of glycogen (stored carbohydrate), you were metabolising both glycogen and fat for energy overnight, and your protein needs are higher (negative nitrogen balance).

In the second scenario, the typical working day with little physical activity and two meals with snacks in-between, places you in a “lower relative state of need”. That is before you even order the pizza, your energy and macronutrient needs are fairly low. Now couple the Friday night feasting with almost no physical activity until the following day, and you can imagine what the body has to go through to deal with the excess.

Chronically repeat various graded versions of the second scenario, and you have the metabolic health epidemic you see today.

My point is that a meal and it’s ingredients have an effect positive or negative relative to the body’s “state of need” for it, and though there are indeed vastly more complexities to nutrition, very simply speaking the problems seen with any dietary choice comes down to an excess and/or deficiency relative to the need in a window of time, be it acutely or over the long-term.

There are plausible mechanisms and research evidence that support the suggestion that consumption of excess sugar promotes the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) both directly and indirectly.[4]

The present experiments provide clear evidence that the amount of carbohydrate in a diet determines whether a high-fat diet will induce obesity, or not.[5]

…when fructose supplements diets with excess calories compared with the same diets alone without the excess calories, it leads to weight gain and all of its downstream cardiometabolic disturbances, including an increase in fasting glucose, whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance, apolipoprotein B, fasting and postprandial triglycerides, uric acid, and markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.[6]

Apart from improvements in HbA1c over the short term, there is no superiority of low-carbohydrate diets in terms of glycemic control, weight, or LDL cholesterol.[7]

In pooling the totality of the highest-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials, they confirm that fructose in substitution for glucose or sucrose over a wide dose range has the ability to reduce postprandial glycemic responses and improve longer-term glycemic control without incurring any adverse effects.[6:1]

Clinical diet intervention studies in healthy men and women that definitively demonstrate that sugar consumption at commonly-consumed levels can increase risk factors for metabolic disease in the absence of body weight and fat gain are missing.[4:1]

Indirect estimates of metabolic health, such as insulin sensitivity and glycemic control, revealed no consistent effect of dietary carbohydrates on these variables, irrespective of the occurrence of body mass change. However, certain markers of cardiovascular disease risk (ie, blood triglycerides and HDL cholesterol) do appear to respond positively and relatively rapidly to a reduction in dietary carbohydrate intake across a range of absolute ingestion rates, although this effect was not consistent across all studies.[8]

Therefore, it is not helpful to assume because in certain contexts carbohydrate is unhealthy, that carbohydrate is wholly unhealthy and should be avoided entirely.

Energy Provision

All energy requiring processes in the body are served by the transfer of energy from an unstable molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Energy is released from ATP when the terminal phosphate is cleaved off the molecule by water (hydrolysis) resulting in: Energy + P + Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP).

The relationship between substrate energy contribution and power output. Carbohydrates (glucose) is the primary contributing substrate used during the first 6-60 seconds of exercise.

Fundamentally all sources of energy: exogenous “dietary” (e.g. carbohydrate, fat, protein, alcohol), and endogenous (e.g. blood glucose, glycogen, fat, protein), are metabolised in varying length multi-step processes to resynthesise ATP.

These metabolic processes require ATP, and yield ATP at varying rates and volume. Since energy cannot be created or destroyed only transferred, we can talk about energy metabolism as “ATP turnover”.

Exercise power output is predicated on ATP availability and the rate of ATP turnover. Initial resting levels are high, and short-step metabolic pathways can resynthesise ATP rapidly, but as the duration of exercise increases these initial pathways have to be superseded by longer-step pathways which though generate more overall ATP, do so far slower. The limitation being in part the location, transport and deliver of molecules and co-factors.

Quantitatively, it has been estimated that the rate of ATP generation based on the carbohydrate oxidation is in the range of 0.51 to 0.68 mmol per second per kg body mass. In comparison, the rate of ATP generation based on triacylglycerol fueling is approximately two- to threefold lower (0.24 mmol per second per kg body mass).[9]

Substrate Contribution in Climbing

I am not aware of (yet) any direct studies on substrate contribution in climbing, but we do have data on resistance and endurance exercise.

Resistance exercise is typically characterised by short bursts of nearly maximal muscular contraction, and in comparison to endurance exercise (e.g. >1 hour running or cycling), resistance exercise would better mimic the exercise modality of climbing.

Phosphocreatine (PCr/CP) and glucose derived from the breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis) are the major substrates of the energy delivery pathways for resistance exercise.

Phosphocreatine (PCr)

Small stores of PCr in muscle tissue can transfer phosphate (P) directly to ADP via an enzyme (creatine kinase) resulting in creatine (Cr) and ATP. The phosphagen system is the primary source of ATP resynthesis during the first 10-15 seconds of work, the dominant pathway during low-oxygen availability (anaerobic) maximal power output and interval exercise (short rest/exercise periods).

PCr itself is only resynthesised during aerobic conditions (rest/recovery periods) via ATP produced through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the mitochondria. The same enzyme (creatine kinase) facilities the transfer of phosphate (P) from ATP back to creatine (Cr) producing ADP + PCr. The rate of PCr resynthesis is then dependent on the muscles oxidative capacity, and training modalities that improve mitochondrial biogenesis would increase OXPHOS capacity.[10]

You have experienced the effect of resting between boulder attempts. The “power recovery” you feel is the recovery of muscle PCr from the ATP generated at rest. This is also why optimising muscle creatine stores through daily supplementation with creatine monohydrate has demonstrated both power and work volume improvements across multiple sports.

While it is likely that observed increase in power output is due to the ability of creatine to rapidly re-phosphorylate ATP for rapid energy generation, recent evidence indicates that this response may also be a result of decreased muscle glycogen utilization and muscle protein degradation.[11]

Glycogen (glucose)

Glycogen is long branched chains of hydrated glucose molecules (3g water to 1g glucose), and is made and stored in the cells of the liver (~100g) and muscles (~350-700g depending on diet, training status, muscle fibre type composition, sex and bodyweight) and can be reduced by fasting, low intake of dietary carbohydrate, and/or by exercise.[12] It is because of the water content of glycogen, that you can gain or lose kilograms of body-weight over a weekend, and why low-carbohydrate diets appear to be so effective in the short-term.

During exercise glucose is liberated from glycogen, each glucose molecule metabolised yields 2 ATP and 2 molecules pyruvate. After the phosphagen (PCr) system this is the shortest-step anaerobic process which contributes ATP during the first 6-60 seconds of work.

If oxygen is present, pyruvate is used in aerobic energy metabolism with 1 glucose molecule ultimately yielding 32 ATP molecules. If no oxygen is present, pyruvate is metabolised to lactate, where lactate is converted to glucose in the liver or back to pyruvate. During high-intensity exercise lactate accumulates due to the lack of oxygen, but the “burn” you feel in your muscles and often resulting fatigue, has nothing to do with lactate acid (conjugate acid of lactate), but rather the accumulation of other metabolites such as hydrogen ions (H+) and phosphate (P).[13] 20-90% of lactate formed during exercise is resynthesised back to glycogen in the muscle, but glycogen synthesis from lactate is not favourable in the presence of elevated blood glucose or insulin.[14]

Substrate Use Data

Studies have shown that 6 sets of leg extensions performed at 35% 1-RM (35% of the maximum weight you could lift once “1 rep”) decreased muscle glycogen by 38%, and 3 sets of biceps curls to failure reduced muscle glycogen to 25%.[15]

A study involving 8 bodybuilders arm-curl training (80% 1-RM) showed PCr decreased 62% and glycogen 12% after 1 set, and 50% and 24% after 3 sets. The 62% decline in PCr following 1 set of resistance exercise (~37 sec of work), is similar to the 64% decline shown following 30 sec maximal sprint.[16]

PCr is restored acutely after 1 min recovery, and almost fully after 3 minutes. However lactate and H+ would not be fully cleared, and thus fatigue is likely caused by decreased PCr, and increased H+ as exercise continues.[16:1]

In a 2016 study, CrossFit athletes’ consuming a mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake of 6g/kg/d versus 3g/kg/d completed 154.4 (± 29.0) versus 139.2 (± 28.0) repetitions during their 12 minute workout (+15.22; +10.9% improvement), and the high-CHO group’s VO2 increased from 38.2 (± 4.9) to 40.0 (± 3.9).[17]

Repetitions completed (mean ± SD) during the pre-CHO intervention (mean of baseline performance tests; Pt1 + Pt2) and the post-CHO intervention (Pt3) by the CHO and control group. (n=18). &#42;Post CHO was significantly different from Pre CHO in both groups (p = 0.002).

Running on Carbohydrate or Fat?

Quoting my 2016 Instagram post: Running on Carbohydrate or Fat? to provide further context on how carbohydrate (glycogen) metabolism allows greater sustained power output.

Fat metabolism requires oxygen, and to generate the same rate of ATP turnover as glycogen metabolism, you literally have to breath harder. Though this may not be directly evident in climbing, but the fact remains, carbohydrate metabolism provides more power ouput at a lower oxygen consumption.

The energy cost of running for the average person is around 1.0 kcal/kg/km

If you were burning fat, you would get around 4.71 kcal per liter of oxygen you consume. If you were burning carbohydrate, you would get around 5.06 kcal/l of oxygen consumed.

The slide provides an example 55 kg elite (0.9 kcal/kg/km) runner who would expend roughly 2089 kcal over a 24 km marathon.

Greater glycogen availabilty allows greater power production with less oxygen consumption.

If they wanted to run the marathon in 2 hours, and derived the majority of their energy from fat, they would be required to consume 3.70 liters of oxygen per minute (l/min) to maintain their speed. If they had a maximum VO2Max of 80 ml/kg/min, they would have to run at 84% of their VO2Max to finish in time.

If the same runner derived the majority of their energy from carbohydrate, they would only have to consume 3.48 l/min of oxygen, and run at 79% of their VO2Max to finish in time.

So, put yourself in their shoes. Which would you prefer to run, which would feel more comfortable? Running at 84% or 79% of VO2Max?

More so, if you can run at 84% of VO2Max using fat, why not run at 84% of VO2Max using carbohydrate, run faster, and thus finish in less time.

Greater glycogen availabilty allows greater power production with less oxygen consumption.

Carbs and Running Economy: Data From the Trenches

The below quotation and graph is from a 2017 article by Jeff Rothschild, RD, CSDD.

Check out this graph below, it’s showing us the amount of oxygen he is using at each running speed. And yes, this is a big deal. He commented that the test felt easier, and that’s because every stage was at a lower percentage of his VO2max! Would you rather run at 80% or 85% effort, if you were going the same speed? Of course you’d rather run with less effort, and that’s why we want athletes burning carbs and not fat! If you’re wondering how this could be, I’ve written in more detail several reasons I’m not a fan of low-carb diets for competitive endurance athletes. (Jeff Rothschild, RD, CSDD.)

Would you rather run at 80% or 85% effort, if you were going the same speed? (

Nutritional Considerations for Bouldering

Around the time I was preparing the original show notes for ClimbSci - Episode 02 - Carbohydrate, and what has now become this article; Smith, E, et al. released their 2017 review paper titled: Nutritional Considerations for Bouldering (PDF).

Quoting their carbohydrate recommendations:

The recently updated position paper on Nutrition and Athletic Performance, recommends carbohydrate intakes for athletes ranging from 3 to 12 g/kg/day (Thomas et al., 2016). However, a carbohydrate intake of ~5 g/kg body weight/day is sufficient to maintain glycogen stores during other sports featuring similar elements of repetitive high-intensity bouts of exercise and resistance training (Tipton et al., 2007). It is important to tailor carbohydrate intake in line with training periodisation and daily energy goals. Carbohydrate consumed 1-4 hours before training enhances skeletal muscle carbohydrate oxidation and glycogen resynthesis, particularly important in the morning after an overnight fast (Thomas et al., 2016). In sports such as bouldering, where carbohydrate depletion is not a primary concern, the pre-training meal need not be carbohydrate focussed and an intake of 1 g/kg of body weight prior to exercise should be sufficient (Maughan & Burke, 2012). The use of carbohydrate loading is not necessary for high-intensity, short duration events such as bouldering and may have an adverse effect on performance due to the associated weight gain.[18]

It was encouraging that we came to similar conclusions, and that both of us highlight…

It is important to tailor carbohydrate intake in line with training periodisation and daily energy goals.[18:1]

Carbohydrate (CHO) Intake Recommendations

The above long preamble was to provide the background before I list my recommendations, and importantly the references that informed my recommendations. Certainly take the time to read data and make your own decisions on the subject.

What follows is what I feel are practical applications of carbohydrate feeding strategies for climbing, derived from the currently available data in other sports and research. I may be wrong, and welcome feedback so I can continue to update these recommendations for everyone’s best possible use.

Daily Strategies

Specific Periodised Strategies

Preparation for Project or Competition

Day of Project or Competition

Rapid Glycogen Recovery

Considerations During Menstrual Cycle

Also read my article: Training and Nutrition Considerations for Women.

Considerations for Diabetic Individuals

Important: I am not a dietitian, so please consult a medical sports nutrition specialist if you have concerns of about nutrition strategies for individuals with diabetes or other metabolic syndromes.

The mid-postprandial period offers a window of opportunity to diabetes patients to exercise and blunt the glucose surge without fear of hypoglycemia (low blood glucose). The early and late postprandial periods are “grey” segments, constantly vulnerable to intrusion by hepatic glucose.[19]

Notable References Informing Guidelines

The above were my recommendations, what follows are bulleted research references which should aid you in understanding whether or not my guidelines are sensible.

As I come across pertinent new research I will update these lists.

Training and Performance on a High-Carbohydrate Diet

Restricting Carbohydrate Post-Training

Glucose Plus Fructose Ingestion for Post-Exercise Recovery

Training and Performance on a Low-Carbohydrate Diet

The ketogenic diet has received considerable attention in the popular press and many claims have been made recently. However, it is important to realize that, to date, not a single study has demonstrated performance benefit of a ketogenic diet, including the early study that is often referred to (Phinney, 1983). Thus, at present, there are no data on ketogenic diets in athletes on which to base performance claims.[1:3]

While no performance decrements were evident in KD [ketogenic diet] participants following the intervention, it is notable that these participants did not experience improvements in certain performance measures relative to CTL [control / non-ketogenic diet] participants (e.g., 1-RM squat and VO2peak). Alternatively stated, the CTL group may have experienced significant improvements in select performance measures had n-sizes been larger or the study had been longer in duration.[46:1]

Menstrual Cycle Impact on Carbohydrate Use

Carbohydrate Overfeeding and De Novo Lipogenesis

2017 Review: Dietary carbohydrates, components of energy balance, and associated health outcomes

The role of dietary carbohydrates in the development of obesity and associated metabolic dysfunction has recently been questioned. Within the last decade, the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition carried out a comprehensive evaluation of the role of dietary carbohydrates in human health. The current review aims to complement and extend this report by providing specific consideration of the effects of the component parts of energy balance, their interactions, and their culmination on energy storage and health.[8:1]

Bullet points are verbatim quotes from the 2017 review. Do read the whole paper to fully understand context.


If I ever change my mind, need to correct, or remove anything in this article, I will list it below and strike the original content.


  1. Jeukendrup, A. E. (2017). Periodized Nutrition for Athletes. Sports Medicine. Springer International Publishing. ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎

  2. Impey, S. G., Hammond, K. M., Shepherd, S. O., Sharples, A. P., Stewart, C., Limb, M., … Morton, J. P. (2016). Fuel for the work required: a practical approach to amalgamating train‐low paradigms for endurance athletes. Physiological Reports, 4(10), e12803. ↩︎

  3. Vandevijvere, S., Chow, C. C., Hall, K. D., Umali, E., & Swinburn, B. A. (2015). Increased food energy supply as a major driver of the obesity epidemic: a global analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 93(7), 446–56. ↩︎

  4. Stanhope, K. L. (2016). Sugar consumption, metabolic disease and obesity: The state of the controversy HHS Public Access. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci, 53(1), 52–67. ↩︎ ↩︎

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  7. Snorgaard, O., Poulsen, G. M., Andersen, H. K., & Astrup, A. (2017). Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care, 5(1), e000354. ↩︎

  8. Harry A. Smith, Javier T. Gonzalez, Dylan Thompson, James A. Betts; Dietary carbohydrates, components of energy balance, and associated health outcomes, Nutrition Reviews, Volume 75, Issue 10, 1 October 2017, Pages 783–797, ↩︎ ↩︎

  9. Schönfeld, P., & Reiser, G. (2013). Why does brain metabolism not favor burning of fatty acids to provide energy? - Reflections on disadvantages of the use of free fatty acids as fuel for brain. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 33(10), 1493–1499. ↩︎

  10. Sahlin, K. (2014). Muscle Energetics During Explosive Activities and Potential Effects of Nutrition and Training. Sports Medicine, 44, 167–173. ↩︎

  11. Tomcik, K. A., Camera, D. M., Bone, J. L., Ross, M. L., Jeacocke, N. A., Tachtsis, B., … Burke, L. M. (2017). Effects of Creatine and Carbohydrate Loading on Cycling Time Trial Performance. ↩︎

  12. Knuiman, P., Hopman, M. T. E., & Mensink, M. (2015). Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise. Nutrition & Metabolism, 12(1), 59. ↩︎

  13. Cycling News. (2004). Lactate and lactic acid - dispelling the myths. ↩︎

  14. Pascoe, D. D., Costill, D. L., Fink, W. J., Robergs, R. A., & Zachwieja, J. J. (1993). Glycogen resynthesis in skeletal muscle following resistive exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. ↩︎ ↩︎

  15. Haff, G. G., Stone, M. H., Warren, B. J., Keith, R., Johnson, R. L., Nieman, D. C., … Kirksey, K. B. (1999). The Effect of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Multiple Sessions and Bouts of Resistance Exercise. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 13(2), 111. ↩︎

  16. MacDougall, J. D., Ray, S., Sale, D. G., McCartney, N., Lee, P., & Garner, S. (1999). Muscle substrate utilization and lactate production. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology = Revue Canadienne De Physiologie Appliquée, 24(3), 209–215. Retrieved from ↩︎ ↩︎

  17. Escobar, K. A., Morales, J., & Vandusseldorp, T. A. (2016). The Effect of a Moderately Low and High Carbohydrate Intake on Crossfit Performance. International Journal of Exercise Science, 9(3), 460–470. Retrieved from ↩︎ ↩︎

  18. Smith, E. J., Storey, R., & Ranchordas, M. K. (2017). Nutritional Considerations for Bouldering. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 27(4), 314–324. ↩︎ ↩︎

  19. Chacko, E. (2017). A time for exercise: the exercise window. Journal of Applied Physiology, 122(1), 206–209. ↩︎

  20. Stellingwerff, T., & Cox, G. R. (2014). Systematic review: Carbohydrate supplementation on exercise performance or capacity of varying durations. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition et Metabolisme, 39(9), 998–1011. ↩︎

  21. Simonsen JC, Sherman WM, Lamb DR, Dernbach AR, Doyle JA, Strauss R. Dietary carbohydrate, muscle glycogen, and power output during rowing training. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1991 Apr; 70(4):1500-5. [PMID:2055827] ↩︎

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